Projects and programmes Single projects are the basic unit of observation. Projects may be individual or may form part of programs (set of projects). Projects may be collaborative, i.e. a joint effort of several partners. The role of the TAFTIE agency is to support projects by means of financial or other assistance.

Inputs and outputs Project inputs comprise the complete set of economic resources devoted to the project, i.e. the total costs incurred in order to create the outputs of the project. TAFTIE agency support is part of project. The aim of the TAFTIE agency support is to influence the design and/or implementation of the project in such a way that additional outputs and impacts are generated.

Results and outcome Projects aims at particular results. Results comprise outputs and/or impacts. As projects are not deterministic, results may be planned (forecasted or expected) but remains uncertain up to the time of realisation. The outcome is the particular set of possible project results that happens to be realised.

Milestones Milestones are defined by realisation of one or more events. A simple milestone will be a pure time event, i.e. a day occurring. Milestone events may be used to forecast and check outcomes of result variables.

Additionality and efficiency Additionality is the extent to which additional outputs and impacts are created by support. The efficiency of the project is the relation between outputs and inputs. The efficiency of the TAFTIE agency support is the relation between the additional outputs and the costs of support.

Impacts and effectiveness Outputs are part of the realisation of the project itself. Impacts are effects outside the realm of the project itself, caused by the way the project is implemented or by utilisation of the project's outputs. The effectiveness of the project is the relationship between the outcome and the inputs. The effectiveness of the TAFTIE agency support is the relationship between the additional outcome and the costs of <I>support

Potential, risk and uncertainty The project's potential is the value of its most probable outcome. Uncertainty implies that outcomes are completely random or follows unknown probability distributions. Risk is the product of the probability and the consequences of an outcome. In an economic assessment consequences are expressed in terms of increased or reduced costs and/or benefits.

Variables, indicators and units of observation Variables hold observed values of aspects of specific units of observation. Often variables will be coded directly from entries in questionnaire forms. An indicator is a quantity derived from one or more variables and/or one or more units of observations. To qualify as indicator such a quantity should be correlated with some underlying (i.e. not directly observable or complex) feature of a single unit of observation or the system of units of observation (i.e. network or interaction features).

Network A 'network' consists of partners (nodes) and relations (links). A particular network may be characterised by size (number of partners) or intensity (number or duration or cost of contacts exercised). Other features of interest may include complementary of partners (are they similar or different), location (close or distant), nationality etc. Partners in a network may also have different roles relative to the tasks faced within the project, they may supply different skills or inputs and/or extract different utility from taking part in the project.

How much we need to ask about the network will be dependent on what our hypotheses are. We do think networks are important, i.e. networking improves project outcome. But this is not as simple as more networking means better results. The issue of the quality or appropriateness of the networking comes into question. While lacking a good theory for the optimal network, we will still want to register features we think might be important for how networks affect outcomes.


Mr. Michael Ganoote ANVAR, France
Mr. Javier Urzay CDTI, Spain
Mr. Klaus Schnitzer FFF, Austria
Mr. Marc Lambrechts IWT, Belgium
Mr. Tamas Balogh OMFB, Hungary
Mr. Torbjorn Winqvist NUTEK, Sweden
Mr. Geert van der Veen SENTER, Netherlands
Mr. Jon Hekland RCN, Norway
Mr. Jari Romanainen TEKES, Finland


ANVAR, France,

CDTI, Spain,
ENEA, Italy,,
FFF, Austria,,
IWT, Flanders, Belgium,,
Enterprise Ireland,,
NUTEK, Sweden,,
OMFB, Hungary,
RCN, Norway,,
Scottish Enterprise, Scotland,
Senter, Netherlands,,
Technopol Brussels, Brussels Belgium,,
Tekes, Finland,,
TTGV, Turkey,'
VDI/VDE-IT, Germany,,